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Gall Bladder Surgery

Gall bladder is an organ which helps in the digestion of fat & concentration of bile. It lies just beneath the liver. Most problems to this organ are dealt by surgically removing it. This process is called cholecystectomy.

The surgical procedure commonly involves reaching the gall bladder through the incisions, disconnecting the gallbladder from other organs, and finally taking the organ out gently. Blood vessels and bile ducts that lead to the gall bladder are cut away. Generally, incisions are made in the area just below the ribs.

A cholangiogram may also be done in certain cases. Here, a contrast dye is injected into the bile duct. Thus, the path of the bile duct can be very well recognized. Other stones can also be detected by using the dye.

The surgery is commonly used for those whose gallbladder is defective. The condition is medically referred to as biliary dykinesia. Under such conditions, the following symptoms may be felt:

  • Cholecystitis (Gallbladder infection).
  • Indigestion.
  • Sensation of pain in the middle or upper right portion of the stomach. This is primarily experienced after eating.
  • Vomiting & nausea.

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Before the surgery, anesthesia is administered to a patient placed in the supine position. Several micro-instruments along with a camera are passed in the abdomen through small incisions. Through one of the instruments, the abdominal cavity is filled with carbon dioxide. This is to create a sufficient working space. The gall bladder fundus is then identified. This portion is then grasped and strongly retracted. The calot's triangle is then exposed by retracting the tapering portion of gallbladder. The triangle is then dissected and the peritoneal covering is exposed. The underlying structures can then be exposed. After identifying the cystic artery and cystic duct, they are clipped & cut. Nowadays, the procedure is used using modern techniques like Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery (SILS) and Laparo-Endoscopic Single Site Surgery (LESS). The advantages of these procedures are that the number of incisions required is significantly reduced to 1. In addition, the cuts are also barely visible.