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Type - 1 Diabetes

The Type 1 diabetes is related to insulin deficiency. This type is characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. The disease can be fatal if left unrecognized. Control of the disease is brought out by insulin supplementation. Full or partial transplantation of pancreas is another option for treatment. A distinction of type 1 from type 2 diabetes can be achieved by testing chemicals like GADA (glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies), Insulinoma Associated autoantibodies (IA-2) etc.

The management of type 1 diabetes has to be carried out throughout life. Normally, management can be done individually. The conditions of low & high blood sugar are the major complications of this type of diabetes. Both high & low blood pressure levels can cause increased weariness. However, high blood pressure can damage the organs and a low blood pressure can lead to frequent fainting.

Diagnosis: Type 1 diabetes can be diagnosed by testing the following substances:

  • Glycated hemoglobin test: The test is shortly called A1C test. The nominal blood sugar level for the past few months can be understood from this test. The test is performed by measuring the sugar level in the hemoglobin. If the blood sugar level is high, obviously the sugar that is attached to the hemoglobin is high. A count greater than 6.5 can indicate type 1 diabetes.
  • Random Blood sugar test: during this test, blood samples are taken at random time intervals. Irrespective of the food consumed, a count greater than 200mg/dL can indicate diabetes.
  • Fasting blood sugar test: An overnight fast is required for this test. A count greater than 126mg/dl is considered as diabetes. Pre-diabetes shall be the condition when the count is between 100 & 125 mg/dL. A normal person will have a count less than 100mg/dL.

On detection of diabetes, blood tests are also carried to find out the presence of autoantibodies. This is normally done to differentiate the diabetes types.

After diagnosing type-1 diabetes, regularly monitoring the A1C levels is mandatory. The attempt of the treatment would be to lower the A1C levels to about 154mg/dL. Additionally, checking the functions of organs like liver, kidney, thyroid gland etc is done to comprehend/detect the damage.

Type 1 diabetes has higher chances of occurring during puberty. The incidence however decreases in the post-puberty period. As the age increases, it becomes difficult to differentiate diabetic types. Therefore, a concrete idea about its prevalence in the middle ages is unknown.