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Type - 2 Diabetes

It is estimated that almost 90% of diabetic cases falls into the type 2 category. Diabetes Type 2 can be either due to insufficient insulin production or insulin resistant. Due to this reason, this diabetes is also called Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM). When the body becomes resistant to insulin, 2 major issues arises:

  • Increased glucose levels in the bloodstream.
  • Insufficient glucose supply for proper cell functioning.

Improper glucose levels can lead to dehydration, diabetic coma etc. Dehydration is caused due to the frequent urination. Diabetic coma is a life threatening condition in which the patient becomes dehydrated and ill to such an extent that he/she is unable to compensate for the loss of fluids.

Medications are given to increase the insulin sensitivity and to reduce the amount of glucose production in the liver.

Obese people are found to be more susceptible to this form of diabetes. People who have an excess amount of abdominal fat are seen to be more prone to this diabetes type. Almost 55% of the people diagnosed with diabetes were obese during the onset. These kinds of persons also have larger risk of releasing chemicals that can lead to cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders and other serious disorders.

Glucose control can be attained by performing more exercise, reducing the body weight and reducing carbohydrate intake.

Oral medicines are also prescribed for regulating glucose production by the liver. This can treat the insulin-resistant nature of the disease.

Diagnosis has to be carried out as early as possible to better the treatment.

Blood & Urine Tests: The urine of a healthy person is devoid of any glucose. However during diabetes, a certain amount of glucose may be present in the urine.

If glucose presence is detected, another test called the Glucose Tolerance Test to confirm diabetes.

Glucose Tolerance Test: This test is also called Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). One has to refrain from eating & drinking prior to 8-12 hours of taking food. Intake of particular medications also has to be stopped before the test. The procedure begins with taking the blood sample after observing the above mentioned instructions. A glucose drink is then given. After a stipulated time period, the blood sample is taken again. The glucose levels from the 2 blood samples is compared & assessed.

The glucose level for a diabetic person is more than 7mmol/l prior to test & 11mmol/l 2 hours after the test.

diabetes infographic