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Ulcers are parietal defects that are usually oval or round in shape. The circumference of these orifice ranges from 2cm to 4cm. they have a relatively smooth base and orthogonal borders. Differential diagnosis shall helpful to detect the presence if ulcers.

Majority of ulcers are caused due to helicobacter pylori. Abnormally high levels of this type of bacterium can indicate ulcer. 3 main types of tests are performed to detect the presence of this bacterium.

  1. Urea breadth test: In this test, a drink is administered to the patient. This drink contains chemicals that can be easily digested by the bacterium. The breadth is examined after having the drink. This is shall help in determining the presence of the bacterium & thereby ulcer. For detection, radioactive carbon is used. If there is a presence of h.pylori, the exhaled air shall contain radioactive carbon dioxide. This mode of treatment happens to be useful for comprehending the levels of improvement shown. If the degree of bacterial damage is decreased, then the air shall contain only limited amount of radioactive carbon dioxide.
  2. Stool antigen test: The sample from the fecal matter is tested to detect the presence of bacterium.
  3. Blood test: The blood sample is tested for detecting the presence of the antibodies to h.pylori bacterium. An increased count of these antibodies shall indicate the presence of high bacteria count.

Endoscopy is another method used for diagnostic purposes. The procedure used for this purpose is termed as diagnostic gastroscopy. A hollow tube that is fitted with a lens is passed through the esophagus, stomach and finally to the small intestine. The presence of ulcers is looked for. If ulcer is detected, a tissue sample is taken for biopsy. This can also help in detecting the ulcer. Endoscopy is regarded as the suitable method for older persons. This is also the method suggested for those experiencing frequent bleeding, immediate loss of weight, difficulty in eating & swallowing etc .Another method of diagnosing this is to take to the X-ray of the digestive tract. This procedure is also called upper gastrointestinal series or barium swallow. The X-rays sequence of the esophagus, stomach and small intestine is considered to be helpful in detecting the presence of ulcers. The intake of barium (white in colour) shall help in clearly seeing the body parts.

Most gastric ulcers are located on the stomach's lesser curvature. Diagnosis in the areas like these can help in determining the ulcer presence.